Basic Education Materials – Textbooks in Teaching and Learning

Basic Education Materials – Textbooks in Teaching and Learning

Its been researched that Basic Education Materials are the most effective in teaching and learning among other factors.

Researchers have found out that over the decades that the availability of textbook appears to be the single most consistently positive factor in predicting effective teaching and learning rather than teacher training.

National policy on education (2004) emphasized that education for affecting national development.

Basic Education Materials and its Importance

The junior secondary education plays an important part in achieving these objectives; many concepts taught in secondary school curriculum is mere pictorial presentation.

According to Ofoegbu (2005) in one her journal of academic stated that these Basic Education Materials and pictures used in teaching increase students interest since children learn faster when they see physical image of the material. In 1997, the federal government of Nigeria conducted a study to asses the level of achievement of study.

The result of study conducted by the universal Basic Education (2001) to asses the level of achievement.

The study reported that there was low level of achievement. The low level of achievement was attributed to some factors including non-availability of quality of textbooks particularly in pre-vocational subjects and other basic education materials. According to Ejili (2002) the volume and complexity of information imbibed requires the knowledge of computer operation which can commonly be gotten by making quality computer textbook available.

It is these basic education materials that help the students to understand what the teacher says easily. In November (2000) MTN Nigeria  launched a book Aid programme and distributed educational books in mathematics  and science mostly in pre-vocational subject to about ten thousand (10,000) junior secondary schools.

The philosophy behind this programme was to mark the need of basic education materials like textbook in achieving a specific objective stated. Despite these local inventions, many others book are not available in the required quantity in schools.

Obanya (2000) states that the fear of government and concerned citizens of Nigeria is heightened by warning that unless urgent steps are taken by African governments to make African child own her book, education material, education for all and literacy for all will continue to elude African and its people.

The former president of the federal republic of Nigeria in 1999 launched the universal basic education on 30th September.

The philosophy of that exercise is not only to provide good structural facilities but to provide quality textbooks in teaching and learning for effective change. Taking note of the importance of the use of quality textbooks in teaching and learning computer science, getting a job or carrying out any transaction like internet services requires quality textbooks that such issue is written on.

According to Imoko (2007) the use of information and communication technology (ICT) generally has suddenly become usual in many sectors on national development, much of the information are not gotten from teachers at times because, this is a new invention in educational system for that quality basic education materials like textbooks based on that. The world is a global village today and has to go along with changes everyday, sometimes the information may not reach schools and the need is required, the use of textbooks could help in this situation.

In our educational sector for instance, students and teachers searches for materials on internet, the sue related information textbooks or supplementary reader will help to get the information very easily.

Today mysteries of nature cannot be understood with out the knowledge of computer system and textbooks.

Therefore the availability of quality textbook and education materials appears to be most consistent and positive factor in predicting academic achievement of effective is to occur. Having considered the all these factors that inhibits effective learning, how can, it can be solved. Then it is necessary to find solutions to all these problem.


Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because no nation has ever and can ever rise above the quality of its educational system.

Nwuche and Odo (2009) stressed that this means the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such nation and some basic eduction materials will facilitate these positive changes.

However, with all the emphasis placed on the study of computer in Schools as pre-vocational subjects as was stipulated  by universal basic education in agreement with national policy on education  (2004) the trend has shown a growing index of seemingly lack of interest and poor in  technological performance.

This is a limiting factor to student’s career choices and a serious threat to technological development in the country.

What are then the problem confronting the teaching and leaning of computer education as a pre-vocational subject in junior secondary schools even with the use of basic education materials.
i.    Irregular payment of teachers. This has done so much harm to educational pursuit and resulted many times to teachers. Children as a result of this strike action may stay away from school for a period of months.

According to national commission for colleges of education new letter of April (1994). The teacher should first receive there salaries and allowance because bad treatment of teacher has a reprocessing for every family directly and indirectly and a tragic consequence for the future of the nation.

ii.    Learning environment the learning environment that is free of barriers or obstacles or  distraction such as noise, gas/smoke pollution in turn affects or reduces students concentration or conceptual focus to learning sprinthall (1997).

iii.    Government polices: Inconsistent government policies in the past caused a fallen standard in academic performance of pupils. Every regime that assumes office immediately changes ministers and policies, this loss of continuity resulted in poor implementation of educational policies.

For instance the political parties like the Alliance for Democracy AD in Lagos state in order to make people literate polarized educational system by giving automatic promotion to students on the secondary school level via the mass use of basic education materials.

These bandwagon promotions produced unqualified students in their final class in junior secondary school certification examination such as NECO etc. hence recording thousands of students failing.

iv.    Shortage of qualified and dedicated teachers.
The key to success of any educational programme is in the ability of the teacher into whose hands the programme are entrusted. Adibe (1997) Noted that a quack doctor is capable of ruining an individual’s life at time but a bad and unqualified teacher ruin a nation.

The more qualified  and dedicated trained teacher we have, the greater success to the recorded in achieving the educational objectives set out for a particular course in terms of quality and quantity, Nigeria  is forced with the problem of shortage of  suitable teacher, Adibe steered.

v.    inadequate teaching facilities, Acknowledging that teaching facilities should kept of utmost interest national policy on education (2004) declared that teaching shall be by practical exploratory and experimental  method with the aim of attaining to the goal of junior secondary education.

How ever Obodo (1997) noted that there is complete absence of experimental method in schools possibly the reason for because of inadequate teaching facilities.

Therefore since children learn easier and faster  form what they see, teacher are encourage to improvised if possible because poor practical orientation leads to poor understanding of the theory.

vi.    Poverty. The united state department of education (200) found in a study that the relationship between poverty and student performance is not simple and direct.

It concludes that poverty is an important factor accounting for difference in performance and achievement across rural, suburban and urban distracts. However the study concludes that poverty in the performance of the students could be due to access to limited or no basic educational materials.

Johnson (1996) opined that poverty of parents has elastic effect on their children academic work as they lack enough resources and funds to sponsor their education and good school, good housing facilities medical care and school welfare services Mba (1991) lamented that poverty of the parents has made education (teaching and learning) impossible for children especially disabled children in the rural area.

He lamented that poverty has further caused other problem, such as disease, frustration, poor performance and psychological problems and so on.

Evaluation as educational concepts includes the examination of the curriculum contents, the instructional process and objective. Computer as one of pre-vocational subjects should be classified as one of the core subjects instead of being elective may even constitute to the problem.

The use of basic education materials like quality textbooks in teaching and learning have a great impact in learning environment. If a good foundation is laced the probability will be high that children will develop interest for computer science, some of the concept in elementary computer are really difficult for the students to understand, this is because lack of concrete to  examples and required material are not given.

The qualification of teachers matters in teaching and learning be one cannot give out what he don’t have therefore the knowledge of teacher have a great impact in the modification of character which gives a dare need for basic education materials in all sector of academics.

It is worthy to note that lack of educational materials, laboratory equipment posed a big problem to the government and education of the society. The assumption that in provision of materials do not always give the expected accurate result and may lead to frustration; therefore it is of utmost importance to provide the student with adequate experience to enhance science.


We will try to explain the methodology used in the study which includes the following
1.    Research Design
2.    Area of the study
3.    Population of the study
4.    Sample ad sampling size
5.    Instrument for data collections
6.    Method of  data collections
7.    Method of data analysis
8.      validation of the instrument

Research design is the method the researchers used in executing their research. It is a roadmap of the researcher’s investigation.Survey research design was used in this study.

This research design is concerned with what is happening to the sample subjects or variables without any attempt to manipulate or control them.
This design is considered to be appropriate because the data to be collected has to be followed in a sequence.

The area of the study is Enugu urban comprising Enugu North, Enugu East and some part of Enugu south local government area.

And it covered the inavailability of qualified computer science teachers and textbooks, teaching methods and inadequate techniques, unconducive learning environment for computer science.

The population of the study includes all the junior secondary school teachers in Enugu urban comprising 35 government owned junior secondary school.
And it is made of 105 teachers in all the junior secondary school.
Source: courtesy of PPSMB, Enugu stat office of HOD statistics 2010.

The government owned junior secondary schools in Enugu urban is thirty five (35) in number with one hundred and five (105) computer science teachers. The whole sample was used. Among these thirty five (35) junior secondary schools Five (5) junior secondary schools in Enugu urban were
(1)    Coal –camp secondary school Ogbete
(2)    Queens secondary school Enugu school
(3)    City- Girls secondary school Enugu
(4)    National grammar school Nike school
(5)    Government secondary school Enugu

The instrument used is questionnaire containing structured items that reflected the variable in the study of basic education materials. The questionnaire has closed- ended structured questions it contained 24 item questions.

The respondents were to respond to each of the item a four (4) point option, they are:
Strongly agreed = SA, Agreed = A, Disagreed = D strongly disagreed = SD.

In order to collect the data for the study the researchers visited the various schools and administered the questionnaires personally to the respondents sampled for the study. All the copies were dully compelled and collected same day.

The scores (x) is the representation of the four points like scale and they are given as.
SA    =    4.00
A    =    3.00
D    =    2.00
SD    =    1.00

The scores of the respondents were calculated. Therefore any mean score that is equal to or greater than 2.5 suggest Agreed while any score below 2.5 suggest disagreed.
Mean (x)    =     £fx

Where (x) represent the mean scores and x represent the point scale


A questionnaire is valid if it measures what it is supposed to measure. This does not mean that reliable measure guarantees validity but a valid measure will always be reliable.

Therefore, to ensure that the questionnaire is valid, the questionnaires item’s were presented to our project supervisor who continuously corrected them to ensure that it measures what is supposed to measure the effects of basic education materials.

Basic Education Materials – Textbooks in Teaching and Learning