Education – Motivation of Teachers in Secondary Schools


Education and Motivation of Teachers in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government.

Background to the study
Organization exists to achieve some of its objectives and goals with which is the pre-condition for its establishment.  It is through the combined efforts of people in an organization that such goals and objectives are realized.

The school as an organization is set up with desired objectives, which can be accomplished through the combined efforts of the teaching staff on one hand, and invariably the school administration and the constituted authority on the other hand.

Education system like every other social system depends largely on their caliber of personnel (Teacher) that are found within the system for it to realize and actualize its set  objectives and goals, and for the personnel to perform optimally they have to be motivated.
Based on the above premise, this study invariably posits the need for adequate motivation of secondary school teachers  as  it is currently seen lacking in our educational system. The non motivation of secondary schools has been found to be one of the reasons for their non-performance and non chalant attitude towards teaching.

Studies has shown that motivation and leadership management are central factors in the effective influencing of people at work. Subsequently, the motivation of teachers as employers depends on less attention. This primarily forms the basis upon which this is founded.

For teachers to be effective and put in their best in teaching as a profession Taylor (1991), stated that the basic motive of man at work was economic. Money was seen as a principal motivation instrument. According to Peothisberger (1978), while motivating power of money and material rewards could not be ignored, emphasis should be shifted from economic man to social man which draw attention to the effects of group membership and interaction on production, attitudes and job satisfaction.

The studies gave rise to the human relation movement which maintained that man does not just work for money, that other personal and interpersonal considerations, such as personal worth, recognition, friendship, social pressures from group members and level of job satisfaction.
Osuji (1985:91), stated that it has become increasingly clear that beyond economic needs, man has some social-psychological needs that should be satisfied in order to elicit behaviour toward increased productivity.

The traditional theories of management exemplified by the scientific management movement, stress the motivating power of money and material rewards, the classical theories take note of the latter, but lay greater emphasis on satisfying the psychological needs of the workers (Ezaain, 2006).

According to croft (1996:46), motivation is an impulse that stem from within a person and lead him to acct in ways that will satisfy those impulses. It is also conscious effort or attempt by person (s), group (s) in an organization terms for developing and sustaining the desire or willingness on the part of the employers to participate on organizational activities on the organization terms or purpose as well as on the individual goal.

In other word, the concept, motivation, implies that there is some driven force within individuals, which drives them to attempt to achieve a goal or objective, in order to satisfy their need or needs. Therefore, to say that they do these things which they hope will satisfy these drives  and desires and induces the subordinates to act in a desired manner (Koontz et al, 1983:682). Motivators are factors or variables that induce, an individual to perform either positively or negatively in a work setting.

They are perceived or physical conditions. They very in the form of financial benefits, institutional and societal recognition, achievement, affection, growth prospects, responsibility, working condition, environment, satisfaction of funder mental needs participation in decision making, proper channel of communication, informal relationship, policy and administration style, supervision, job security, individual and organizational goals (Bonzek, 1991).

The necessity for managers and school administrators to motivate their employees cannot be over-emphasized. Schools administrative are person considered as the administrative head of the schools. He is therefore, primarily concerned with the execution of administrative duties (Menezel, 1997).  Olowu, (1991),

Education authority is the ministry changed with the responsibility of policies and implementation of rules and regulations guiding our system. Secondary schools are the level in our school or Nigerian Educational System that falls between the primary stage and tertiary stage. It consists of tiers of three year of senior secondary.

Teaching staff are one that is assigned primarily with instructional duties within the school system.
There is no doubt that the ability of any organized enterprise and indeed any group, to a large extent on the motivation of its employees. Indeed, no manager or administrator can succeed in achieving optimal productivity for his or her enterprise without knowing what motivates people (Koontz et al, 1983).

Motivation of teacher as employees become very essential when it is realized that although people work in an organized enterprise or participate in all kinds of group in order to achieve some desired goals that they cannot attain as individuals, this does not imply that they will necessary put in maximum effort to ensure that these goals are accomplished (Bernard, 1933; 84).

This starting observation point to the need for managers and administrators to create and maintain an environment that will elicit maximum productivity for teacher as employer. Performance is the display of uttermost faithfulness in the discharge of one’s duties. This is, given up one’s best bear (9181).

It is worthy note that effective motivation depends on organizational climate in which they operate. At time’s a climate in may repress motives; at time it may arouse them. Equally important, is the recognition of the fact that motivation must be based on situations and what an administration does to induce individual effort towards the accomplishment of enterprise objective which must clearly take into account the differences between individuals, groups time and organizational climate Salisu (2001).
This being the case, the challenge on management is to recognize and understanding the significance of motivation.
In other word administrators of secondary schools should lay emphasis and pay greater attention on proper motivation of the teaching staff as this engender greater performance and create an enabling. Environment in which teachers will perform willingly and optimally.

Statement of the Problem
In recent time, people from all spheres of life in Nigeria have from time to time made remarks on the apparent falling standards of education, both in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.

Consequently, some attributes this current phenomenon to incompetent teachers and apparent lack of education, while some attribute this falling standard to the fact that teachers are not well provided for in Nigeria.

This later school of thought further alleges that defect still exist in the area of motivation of their teachers (Ezeani 2006). The aforementioned views cast some doubts on actual motivation of secondary school teachers. Thus, this study points to the existing gap, that is, lack of teachers motivation. This problem, if not properly addressed and handled by responsible authority would hinder teachers performance and input.

Scroft (1996; 48), noted that there are numerous problems confronting secondary school teachers. Some of these problem according to him, include, lack of motivation, lack of promotion, the lack of recognition and respect and low salary scale as a take home pay.

(Consequently, upon the above problems, the teachers tend to develop neutral or zero willingness to intense unwillingness or opposition or total hatred towards teaching profession instead of the possible intense willingness as a teacher.

They hardly indicate interest in teaching as a profession and life career, which is the primarily means of impacting and transferring knowledge to students for proper development and training of future leaders, is defeated. It is therefore, imperative that something should be done to arrest this ugly trend.

This is because, if the problem is not properly identified, checked and curbed, teachers may likely develop apathy for teaching even at a higher level. If such a situation is allowed to be, nation building which is the target of teachers will be difficult to come – by.

It is against this backdrop, that the researcher is motivated to study the motivation of staff and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi with a view to proffering solutions on how to improve teacher’s welfare and motivational package.  Therefore, the problem of this study is, what is teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students in seconding schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is find out how secondary school teachers are motivated and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state with a view to evolving ways of improving the motivational package of teachers in secondary schools. Specifically, the study is designed to:

1.    Find out to what extent the secondary school teachers are motivated in secondary school in Afikpo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
2.     Find out how motivation of secondary school teachers could lead to improved academic performance of secondary school students in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
3.     Find out how teachers’ motivation promotes students’ punctuality and interest in secondary school in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
4.      Examine how motivation could boost the morale of teachers for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

Significance of the study

The findings of this study will be immense benefit to the ministry of education, school administrators and administrators at the policy – making level. It will as well intimate on the need to motivate the secondary school teachers to perform optimally and also to use the result of this study as a guide to practicing teachers in the field of education for maximum performance.

The result of the study will equally draw the interest of teachers closer to teaching as a hobby and develop appropriate teaching methods instructional materials needed to facilitate teaching and learning in the area.

If the suggestions therein are adopted, the students will benefit maximally from their teachers, as they will put in their best to improve students’ performance, skills and values necessary for socio- cultural, political and economic development of the community.

The result of this study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who would wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the problem.

Therefore, it is hoped that, the study will be of immense assistance to individuals, organizations/ companies and authorities with the administration of education.

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

The study seeks to find out the extent secondary school teachers are motivated, social benefits provided for school teachers, how motivation promotes students’ punctuality and interest in secondary schools, proper motivation of teachers and provision of relevant instructional materials, modern classroom, library, laboratory, information technology centre (1TC), and social amenities for students for efficient punctuality and interest in their academics.

The study also seeks to find ways of boosting teachers’ morale for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools through provision of instructional materials, current textbooks and teaching aids, presentation of merit awards and rewards to the best teachers, rehabilitation and re-construction of dilapidated classroom and staff room; provision of welfare packages, respect and recognition for professional teachers so as to boost the morale of teachers for effective teaching and learning and this as well promote education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state and Nigeria as a nation. The study is delimited to public secondary schools in Akfikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

Research questions

There are questions designed primarily to unfold the unknown and make it serve as a material for guiding others in subsequent moments.  In essence, research questions help research work readers to gather investigated ingredients concerning a particular subject matter.  The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.

1.    To what extent are secondary school teachers motivated in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
2.     How does motivation of secondary school teachers lead to high academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
3.     How can teachers’ motivation promote students’ punctuality and interest in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
4.      How can motivation boost the morale of secondary school teachers for effective teaching and learning secondary schools in Afikpo north Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

Literature related to this study was reviewed under the following headings:
Conceptual framework
Theoretical framework
Empirical studies
Summary of literature resource
Conceptual framework

Nigeria to day is facing a serious economical and educational depression that affects all spheres of life. Its grips are to a great extent felt by education, which happens to be an institution of development permeating all sector of the economy.

This is in the area of educational efficiency and effectiveness which is through staff motivation. Therefore, this literature review will be based on development of motivational process and its additional effects on effective teaching approaches, methods and students performance academically. Croft (1996) defined motivation as a driving force that simulates people or an individual to action.

Amachere (1986) described it as a process of stimulating people to action to achieve desired goals or accomplished desired task.  When staff are motivated, it gives them the incentives to put in more for better results.

However, this study will tend to adopt researchers that will investigate motivation in the area of education management, psychological, sociological, physiological interpretations as to what motivates in real sense. Owing to this, we have to explore the various theories that have been put forward by various scholars in an attempt to explain the concept of motivation.

There will be justification in starting this kind of analysis  by considering the view of pioneering scholars in the scope of management.

Fredrick Taylor (1911) was concerned with how to get more work out of workers through the best approach, their enforced co-operation and the standardization. (Edern, 1982:6) looked at motivation as being either positive or negative.

Taylor in his analysis emphasized that to achieve optimum output, adequate provision for staff selection and training is necessary and that “financial benefits should be based on merit”.

Ejiogu (1985) supported Taylor’s prudent view by writing on job satisfaction and job performance emphasizing that, the assumption that a satisfied worker is invariably an efficient an effective employee motivation and subsequent morale and assume happiness, dates back to Taylor’s “scientific management”  theory which states that, the identification of interest between the Employer and the Employee gives rise to the workman getting what he too wants (high wages) and the Employer what he too wants (law labour cost).

This idea is balancing the workers productivity with corresponding pay. However, there, are doubts whether that could be fruitful in the field of education.

Theoretical framework  
Among the theories that have been put forward in a bid to explain motivation is Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.

Maslow’s approach wants or need probably to form the first general theory of human motivation study. This theory found on two basic principles:

1.    The attempt to satisfy need is called motivation and motivation flows from dissatisfaction;
2.    To figure out how to improve our employees satisfaction levels we must learn about the degree to which their needs are currently satisfied (Salisu 2001).
Based on this Abraham Maslow, a humanistic psychologist went further to depict in a hierarchical structure the various level upon which human needs exist.

Source: croft (1996: 48)
From Ezeani (2006), Maslow (Kootze et al 1980:63) hypothesized that within each human being there exist a hierarchy of five needs. As each need become substantially satisfied, the person urges for the unsatisfied need.

Thus, Maslow’s need hierarchy, it made up of physiological safety, social esteem and self – actualization needs. Employees do not change their behaviour simply because someone tells them to do so, Dibie (2004).

They stressed that threat and other type of manipulation may make little difference in an employee’s work habits or attitude. The challenge from employers is to balance workers need for job satisfaction. To do this, employers must identify employees most important unsatisfying needs through work itself or conditions at the work place.

Physiological needs

Maslow described this as needs which are at lowest level of the hierarchy and at the bottom of the motivation theory. These include need of sustenance of life, food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction in his work place.

Security or safety need

Safety need reflects the human desire to avoid physical dangers such as a suit, fire accident. A related desire is economic security; fear of loss of job and property. A job related safety need is the desire for certainty in human organization and environmental relationships. Could be through arbitrary decisions, favoritism and discrimination in making job assignments.

Esteem need      

This includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy and achievement.  Internal factor is status recognition, status symbols and rewards of superior performance. The ability of the administration to fulfill esteem needs produce a felling of value and identity competence in employees.

Self – actualization

These include the desire to become what one feels he or she is capable of becoming, achieving one’s potentials and fulfillment. Hence, self realization needs become a dominant influence after physiological, safety, social and esteem needs have been met at an acceptable level.
Maslow’s (Alday and brief 1981:75) proposition implies that need or what affords to motivate man toward working to accomplish objective. Butt they strongly affirmed that once a need is satisfied, it causes to act as a motivator.

Thus, if the physiological needs in this hierarchy of needs are satisfied it would no longer motivate, but rather paved way for the desire of the highest needs. In his effort to analyze Maslow’s theory in relation to performance or achievement in Nigerian secondary schools (Orji 1987:99) aptly affirmed that the basic principle in the theory is that, a higher need cannot be attained until a lower need is satisfied”.

Thus, according to Dibie (2004) it will be fruitless expecting the Nigerian teachers to perform well than one yet to satisfy any. An inference on Maslow’s need theory will rightly recognize the primary and basic satisfaction of fundamental needs of man.

This goes to buttress the fact that, man cannot set about doing anything unless he is relatively envisaging satisfaction. This then brings the questing, how can these fundamental needs of teachers be achieved? Education administrators could make primary attempts to satisfying those needs usually through participating decision-making progress, attractive financial recognition, striving at achieving societal recognition off the contributions of the teacher.
Frederick Herzberg, hiss further signal to the understanding of motivation in schools was undertaken by him, his school generally referred to as “Two factor theory” or “satisfied motivator Dissatisfies / Hygiene” theory.

To accomplish what he termed factor (satisfier) and Hygiene factor (dissatisfies) he set to interview some teachers in school. What he asked was to describe past academic experiences that were “exceptionally good” or “exceptionally bad”. After analyzing these interview Herzberg argued that there are two relatively distinct sets of factors in motivation (Brief, 1987).

Based on the result of his study, Herzberg developed his two groups of factors.
According to him events at work, which made workers feed exceptionally good or satisfied, are:
1.     Achievement
2.     Recognition
3.     Work itself
4.     Responsibility
5.     Advancement

Herzberg called these factors “satisfiers” or motivators they are intrinsic factors relating to the job content nature of the job itself or describing the employees relationship to what he/she does. The event in the work situation that made the workers feel exceptionally bad or dissatisfied include’s

1.      Administrative policy, policy and administration
2.     Supervision
3.     Work itself
4.     Responsibility
5.     Advancement

Herzberg called these “hygiene” or “maintenance” factors. They are dissatisfies and not motivators. In other words, their existence in reasonable quantity in a work environment, will prevent job dissatisfaction or yield no job dissatisfaction but can never head to motivation or job satisfaction. This absence, however, would result in dissatisfaction.

Herzberg’s two factor theory has implications for management and school administrators. If what the administrator wants is motivation too greater productivity, it should create opportunities for personal growth via the motivators (Pratt and Benneth 1979:30).

As croft (1999:49) puts it, if managers wish to motivate employees they can only do so through job content autonomy and responsibility for organizing and controlling one’s own work is the real answer. No amount of environmental improvement can compensate for task improvement.

However, if what the management wants is an acquiescent labour force, then it should provide adequate hygiene factors. According to porter Lawler model of expectancy theory, the reward depends on the following:

1.    The value the reward has for him.
2.     The amount of effort he anticipates is necessary to achieve it.
3.     His expectancy of achieving it.

The equity theory by Salisu (2001) is another important theory of motivation. It is based on the idea that every worker wants to receive what he perceive as an equitable return or reward for his efforts. Where equity prevails, the individual worker is contented. But where inequity prevails, the worker takes steps to achieve equity.

The greater the inequity, the greater the resulting dissatisfaction, and the greater is the motivation to achieve equity (Praft and Bennett 1979; 34).
In one group of needs, Herzberg listed such factors as inter- personal relationships, school policy and administration, supervision, student conditions, the physical surrounding, salary status and school security. All these according to him are dissatisfies and not motivators since they are just like satisfying the lower needs of Maslow’ theory.

When they are satisfactorily maintained, people will not be dissatisfied however neither will the be satisfied. This is referred to as the hygiene factors. According to him, this does not mean that these factors are not necessary.

They are very necessary because without them in personal within the school organization, other motivational factor will not be defective when applied. However if we want to motivate teachers, Herzberg suggests that something else must be done. He therefore listed in second group things that are directly related to the school context.

These include, the factor of achievement, recognition, aims, goals, challenges, objective, responsibility, growth and advancement. He referred to them as the characteristics that find rewording. Satisfies are therefore, motivations.

Their presence will yield feelings of satisfaction or non- satisfaction while their absence will result in dissatisfaction. Its criticisms not withstanding, it has helped us understand why different people are motivated by different rewards. The theory has identified the school content factor as the real motivator; because they have the potentials of yielding a sense of satisfaction and only attention to these factors can stimulation teachers’ efforts in order to increase academic performance.

To this effort, Herzberg posits that educational administrators should give considerable attention to up – grading school content in various ways. The school can be upgraded by making it more challenging, giving rewards for exceptional achievement. The implication of thus view is obvious to the school necessary administrators equally.

Having seen how Herzberg’s study could be applied to general school situation, it could be pertinent that we draw from the study conducted in relation to school situation. Schmid tested the motivation hygiene theory with a sample of public school administrators drawn from 132 high school in Chicago, u. s. a. (Amachere, 1986; 17).

His finding was actually positive as regards to what motivation hygiene theory posits. Thus, he concluded that the implications of the propositions of the motivation hygiene are variable concepts of motivation for school management. From indications and literatures, one understands that there is no standardized pattern of motivating employees. Motivation so seen as complex and individualistic do demands a multi- dimensional approach.

This implies that, the administrator has to be educated on the various theories of motivation or ginger the student’s morals, and do demand apply contingency approach to its application. To further boost the teachers morals, (Njoku, 1985; 9) commenting on modern education leadership, emphasized establishment of effective leadership led relationship.

He maintained that a good administrator should strive towards motivating and maintaining effective relationship with his subordinates. He stressed that a school teacher could achieve that by; at least, observing small face- to- face group meetings, this he said is essential for effective planning, communication and co-operation.
Secondly, that decentralization and authority and the encouragement of teachers participation in school organizational decision- making services as acknowledgement of one’s fundamental aspiration of the led, this motivates the teacher to perform. Thirdly, that the leaders should be sufficiently personal- oriented in order to cause effective supportive relations.

One important thing about this perspective is its complete divorce from the traditional view postulations. He aptly saw motivation in Nigerian situation as more of leadership oriented that teachers tend to be supportive.