Instructional Materials in Teaching – Uses, Learning and Importance
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING – USES, LEARNING AND IMPORTANCE
Instructional materials in teaching – The success of any learning process depends largely on the instructional procedures.
For a given instructional procedure to achieve desired objectives it must be properly harnessed through adequate and proper use of instructional facilities.
The National Teachers Institution is principally a teacher education body that offers instructions to its learners through the use of distance education mode of training. The concept of distance education is very encompassing, because it is bounded by past and present practices and each variation tends to provide a distinct dimension to the concept.
Shale (1996) argued that as field of study and research, distance education has very little conceptual coherence. The term distance education grew out of the need for a concept broader than correspondence study. Distance education encompasses new communication technologies for the delivery institution.
Holmberg (in Garrison, 1998) defined distance education as the various forms of study at all levels which are not under continuous and immediate supervision of tutors present with their students in lecture rooms or on the same premises, but nevertheless benefit from the guidance and tuition of tutorial organization (Garrison 1998:30).
Instructional Materials in Teaching – Uses, Examples and Importance
Distance education is an innovative informal education, which is becoming popular and acceptable in Nigeria. Its popularity and acceptability stem from the fact that it offers to the learners an¬-on-the job training opportunity for updating and upgrading their academic, professional knowledge and skills (Nduanya, 1997).
Writing on the rational for distance education is imperative as a means of providing education to the increasing population that needs formal education on the background of limited vacancy in the formal school setting. Distance education has come to be an alternative form of formal education in which the learner learning at a distance.
The learner has limited contact with his teacher but learns more through well structured and packaged instructional materials in teaching. The learner most of the time is separated from the teacher in terms of time and space.
The model of distance education offered by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Kaduna provide an-on-the job training for serving teachers and all those interested in obtaining the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE).
It is administered as part time study with instructional course materials such as course books, cassette, tapes and other forms of visual and audio aids. The initial focus of the institute on distant learning programme was the training of unqualified primary school teachers to obtain their Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE).
Due to the inherence of on the job training and the experience of the teachers Grade II by distant learning system, the institution introduced the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) by Distant Learning System (DLS). This was to ensure that the school system was not disrupted since most of those who were to be trained were serving classroom teachers.
The success of distance learning mode of education required the extensive use of instructional facilities because instructional materials in teaching are highly required in distant education. This is because the principal participants in distance educator are adult learners. Distance education in developed countries makes use of electronic devices and other instructional facilities extensively.
The NTI model of distant education is basically print based. It relies mostly on the use of printed course materials, which include self-instructional course books in the delivery of instruction to students.
The above provision for course materials for learning is supplemented with periodic face to-face contact between the learners and the instructors (course tutors at designated locations (study centres). During these contact sessions, the learners have face-to-face contact with the instructors.
Principally, the contact sessions provide an avenue for tutorials and writing of review tests, assignments and conduct of practical lesson in the science, cultural and creative arts, physical and health education classes.
The use of instructional materials in teaching in distant learning becomes a necessity because of its central role among adult and distant learners.
According to Ibe (1998), an instructional material is an object or means of communication process that stores and distributes human experience or knowledge, therefore the totality of the information carrying devices.
Human and materials make up instructional materials in teaching. Then, he includes the entire instructional system, which he enumerates to include “the total package of material text, student’s guide and teacher’s guide that are needed to reach the goals of any instructional unit, course of curriculum along with supporting activities and processes required to operate the system as it is designed to be operated.
Instructional materials in teaching consist of all forms of information carriers, which can be used to promote and encourage effective learning in teaching activities.
Since adult learner undergo distant learning and combine their study with a number of other related roles as a means of facilitating learning, it becomes imperative to concretize learning through the extensive use of instructional materials in teaching. Here the teacher must make proper use of relevant materials that are suitable for both the learner and the lesson objective.
The above situation calls for devotion and commitment in planning, selection and delivery of instructions. A well-prepared instruction could be destroyed by non-availability or improper utilization of learning materials by the teacher.
According to Ibe (1998), utilization of instructional materials in teaching associated with the function of the teacher as the manager of the instructional process is important for the teacher to arrange the mechanics of the presentation and also plan to make the materials meaningful to the audience.
He outlined the utilization procedures that the teachers should follow and summarize them as previewing the materials, preparing the environment, preparing the audience and finally presenting the materials.
Regrettably, instructional materials in teaching in most cases are limited or completely lacking, which lead to inefficient performance on part of the tutors. Again, the few available ones are sometimes not utilized in NTI/NCE/DLS and this leads to or makes teaching and learning process to become ineffective.
It is on the basis of these that it becomes necessary to investigate the extent of availability, adequacy and utilization of instructional materials in teaching in the NCE programme of National Teachers Institute.
PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING
The persistent problem of non-availability or inadequacy of most instructional materials in teaching in NTI/NCE programme has been of great concern to the entire society.
This situation coupled with ineffective utilization of the available instructional materials in teaching tends to generate a deep gulf in the programme. The level of availability and utilization tends to generate doubt as to whether these instructional materials in teaching are provided, if so, how are they utilized?
In fact, it raises questions as to whether some instructional materials in teaching are available while others are not and why they are over utilized or underutilized. It is this uncertainty as to the extent of instructional materials in teaching provided and utilized that raises doubt on the quality of graduates of NTI/DLS programme.
Some of the products of this programme find it difficult to effectively teach the subjects they majored in and one begins to wonder as to whether their apparent non-performance is because they were not properly taught due to the non-availability or utilization of instructional materials in teaching in the various centres. This situation leads to poor primary education.
The problem of this study wishes to address is; what is the extent of availability, adequacy and utilization of instructional materials in teaching in the NCE programme of the National Teachers Institute in Ebonyi State.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ON INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING
The study will examine the availability adequacy and the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching at the NTI study centers in Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study is being designed to:
1. Determine the availability of instructional materials in teaching.
2. Find out the adequacy or otherwise of instructional resources.
3. Find out the extent of utilization of the available instructional materials in teaching at the centres.
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING
The findings of this study when concluded shall be of immense benefit to the students, course facilitators, center co-ordinators, parents as well as the entire community.
This study also is significant in that the result with enable the NTI management know those instructional materials in teaching that are available and the ones that are not available, when this is known, NTI authority will be in a position to consider provision of instructional, resources that are not yet available in different centers.
Again the results of the study would show the extent the resources are adequate. When the adequacy of the available resources are identified, the authority in charge of the resources will then try to ensure that the teachers are trained to utilize those resources that have been identified to be available and if the teachers are found to be efficient in the utilization, they shall also gain since their experiences and learning would be enriched.
Furthermore, this study is significant because it would reveal the extent the available resources are utilized. This will enable the management to know those resources that are either over utilized or underutilized in order to carry out supervisory function.
This will help NTI organizers to make effort towards ensuring that those factors that bring about over utilization or under utilization are emphasized.
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING PROCESS
Another significance of the study is that it would help to make the NTI programme in the various centers more effective. This is because the result of the study will sensitize the NTI authorities towards providing those resources that are not available and also ensuring that the ones provided are effectively used.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY ON INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING
The focus of this study is to determine the extent of availability of instructional materials in teaching, adequacy and the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching by the course tutors at the NTI/NCE/DLS in Ebonyi State. The study will make use of NTI course tutors and students available for the programme in the state.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS ON INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING
The following research questions will guide the study.
1. What is the extent of availability of instructional materials in teaching in the NTI/NCE study centers in Ebonyi state?
2. To what extent are the available instructional materials in teaching adequate?
3. To what extent are the available instructional materials in teaching utilized?
The following hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
1. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of students and course tutors on the availability of instructional materials in teaching for the teaching of NTI/NCE/DLS students in Ebonyi State.
2. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of students and the course tutors on the level of utilization of instructional materials in teaching of NTI/NCE/DLS programme in Ebonyi State.
3. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of students and the course tutors on the level of adequacy of instructional materials in teaching of NTI/NCE/DLS in Ebonyi State.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with the review of relevant related materials to the study. The review is done under three broad sub-headings: the conceptual framework, empirical studies and the summary of reviewed literature.
2.1 Conceptual Framework
– Objective of National Teachers Institute
– Type of instructional materials in teaching
– Availability, adequacy and utilization of instructional materials in teaching
– Instructional materials in teaching and learning in NTI/NCE/DLS programme
– Attitude of course tutors.
2.2 Review of Empirical Studies
2.3 Summary of Literature Reviewed
2.1 Conceptual Framework
The concept of instructional materials in teaching is very encompassing. According to Eya (1996), specified items considered as resources in education include: personal curriculum, textbook, annual vote (finance) consumables and equipment.
Instructional materials in teaching are functional and serve useful purpose in the teaching and learning situation and are changeable over a period of time in teaching and learning process and the environment. NTI identified important materials commonly referred to as teaching aids.
According to Onyejemezi (in Achunine 1997:22) educational resource is any item of information, a place of evidence, an idea or series of combination of these development of their ability turn to in the development of their ability to learn, think, tell, discriminate or create.
They are essential prerequisites for learning. He identified two main types to include financial resources and human resources this idea is supported by Agun (2003) when he maintained that there is a general agreement that instructional materials in teaching are some of the important devices which both teachers and learners can use to enhance good quality, learning and instruction.
Educationists share the view that instructional materials in teaching generally and instructional aid in particular are vital in any given teaching an learning situation. In the same vein, Ryburn (1998) opined that learning depends of stimulation and motivation and those instructional materials in teaching stimulate and motivate learners.
In his own contribution, Onyejemez (1991) stresses that learning takes place when learners are fully involved in the process through the use of proper and variety of instructional materials in teaching.
He asked that the use of resources (multimedia approach) gives the learner the opportunity of experiencing as he observes, touches and manipulates things, carries out some experiment or interacts, with some concrete objects and situation reasons, through process, asks questions and finds answers to questions.
In this way, learning is enhanced commenting on the use of resources in learning, Lewis (1994) believed in “heat and forget, see and remember, do and understand”.
He went on to stress that apparatus for public experience must be available in sufficient quality.
This view was supported by Cohen (1996) when he expressed a positive view about the effect of instructional materials in teaching in schools and noted that a great deal of cognitive change in the school system could be made possible through the use of audio-visual such as chart, tape recorder, radio and television programmes, pictures and programmed materials, also making reference to Brown and Thompson (1994), Onyejemez (1996) noted that instructional materials in teaching when properly used perform the following functions:
– Reinforce verbal message
– Get hold of the learners attention
– Provide for direct interaction of students with the reality of the social and physical environments.
– Promote greater acquisition of skills and longer (retention of facts)
– Provide opportunities for independent and individualized learning.
Similarly, Wilkings (2003) supported the view that effective teaching and learning cannot take place without essential resources such as library and audiovisual aids. In a related development, Uyata (1995) postulated that the advancement in technology has made a great demand on the types of resources available for teachers.
He also noted that technology in education has made it possible for many audio-visual and electronic media to be used a great deal.
Such electronic media he added included television, videotape, cassette recorder overhead projector film, radio or teaching machines such as computer, E-mail. Also Agun (1992) while writing on the place of instructional materials in teaching in curriculum development, noted that suitable instructional materials in teaching are facilitators of teaching and learning when they are in good supply, rich in variety and range.
In his conclusion, Uyoata (1995) noted that the availability of learning resources in schools are very important in executing a successful educational programme.
Distant education has developed enormously over the last decade. It has become an intrinsic part of many nations education system in both developed and developing nation as an academic discipline in its own right (Odili, 1997). The genesis of distant education in from of correspondence education as it was popularly known dates back to hundreds of years (Odili 1997).
Teaching and learning by correspondence is the origin of what is today called distant education. The term correspondence was felt to be too narrow in the opinion of Odili (1997).
According to Garrison (1998), the term distant education was first adopted in the United Kingdom, North Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the world. Writing in support, Garrison (1998) noted that in 1992 at its conference, the International Council for Correspondence Education (ICCE) changed the name to International Council for Distant Education (ICDE).
In Nigeria the practice started through Isaac Pitman shorthand course for distant learners in 1990 (Afigbo, 1993). By 1998 several Nigerians embraced the London distant education of the general certificate of education (GCE) (Odili 19967).
According to Nduanya (1997) other familiar distant education programmes that serviced Nigeria include the Wolsey Hall, Oxford and Rapid Results College London. He also noted that there was a certain premier correspondence College in Lagos and posits that distance learning or distant education is neither new nor limited geographically in its application.
Distant education goes by different names such as packaged learning, open learning, programmed learning, and has been defined differently.
According to Bunza (1997), distant education is described as the strategies through which the teacher or a teaching institution provides space and time for the teacher or the teaching institution most of the time. He further enumerated essential elements of distant education to include:
– The separation of teacher and learner distinguishes it from face to face teaching.
– The influence of an educational organization, which distinguishes it from private study
– The use of technical media usually prints to unite teachers and learners and carry the educational content.
– The provision of two-way communication so that the students may benefit from it and even initiate dialogue.
– The possibility of occasional meeting for both educational and socialization purpose.
Nduanya (1997) sees distance education as a form of communication between the students and the centers concerned. Odili (1997) attempted a synthesis of the various forms of distance education to harmonize the internal, inconsistence in the definitions of distance education and presented three essential criteria in the definition of distant educational as:
– Educational communication between facilitator and learners that occurs non-continuously.
– Two-way communication between teachers and learners for the purpose of facilitating and supporting the educational programme.
– The use of technology to mediate the necessary two-way communication.
A number of factors have really made distance education relevant in the Nigeria society.
According to Afigbo (1993), three factors have been identified namely:
– Drive for education for democracy.
– Pursuit of education for social equality
– Growing popularity of continuing and lifelong education through which developing nation can education a number of her society and at minimal cost.
Similarly, to buttress the above, he opined that conventional education (tending to follow what is done or considered acceptable by the society in general particularly at the tertiary level is becoming the monopoly of the rich and calls for the large population as a means of achieving social equality).
In the final analysis, he noted that meteoric rise in knowledge calls for a re-education of the adult to cope with the current explosion in knowledge. This is so because according to him, what could be considered valuable information today rapidly becomes useless with time.
The only solution is the continuous need to update knowledge and skills of qualified personnel. To challenge the logistic problems of providing education to large number of persons considering insufficient material resources calls for a re-appraisal of distance education in Nigeria.
This choice and cost effective measures must be made and implemented to meet the challenges.
Distant education in Nigeria is faced with a number of problems ranging from accessibility to study centers and other forms of study materials to include lack of commitments on the part of the learners, poor methods of instructional delivery and a number of opposing cultural practices in the area of preventive maintenance in our societies.
Bunza (1997) identified lack of trained staff and motivation, lack of finance, problem of communication, problem of inadequate contact session and lack of political will be the government on matter of distance education as some of the problems facing distance education. Also Odili (1997) further noted that lack of institutional readiness and logistics create more stress and crisis in the practice of distance education in Nigeria.
In his own contribution, Eya (1996) identified divided loyalty by the learning between their study and other social responsibilities as threat to the proper practice of distance education in Nigeria.
In a related development, Eya (1996) identified insufficiency in the use of modern technological facilities like radio and television, lack of appropriate infrastructures and lack of good quality lecture materials as some of the problems of distant education in Nigeria.
Also identified are poor quality and insufficient staffing and lack of competitive selective machinery to weld the chaff from prospective quality students, as problems militating proper practice of education in Nigeria.
The contributions of distance education generally are enormous. It provides education for the masses according to Bunza (1992) and has the capacity of enrolling and training as many students as are willing to study in the system.
This is made possible because distant education makes use of the existing facilities including physical and human resources. Distant education by its nature provides education at the doorstep of the learners and in comfort of their vicinity, it likewise provide alternative means of education to those who could not benefit from the conventional institutions due to problems such as early marriage and lack of sponsorship from relative.
2.2 Review of Empirical Studies
Objectives of National Teachers Institute
The impact explains the emergence of the National Teachers Institute in April 1990. Beside the past impendent, Nigeria has witnessed meteoric explosion in knowledge in all fields of study, hence the constant review of school curriculum at all level of Nigeria education system. This culminated in the desire for an improve teacher education industry.
Similarly, the declaration of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1998 by the federal government of Nigeria triggered of a number of education exigencies that include among others the upsurge of pupils enrolment in the Nigeria primary school without the corresponding increase in the number of teachers to maintain the primary schools, this intensified the demand for qualified teachers which led to the establishment of the National Teachers Institute Kaduna among other reasons.
The institute was charged with the responsibility of training the teachers through distance learning. Nworgu (1996) asserted that the recommendation submitted by the tribunal of enquiry in 1992 contained in its white paper on the increscent leakage of examination set by the West African Examination Council (WAEC).
The tribunal argued the federal ministry of education to relieve the West African Examination Council of the responsibility of conducting the national teachers Grade II examination in the centrally set papers. This tribunal opined would increase the efficiency of WAEC and curb examination leakages. A legal backing for the establishment of NTI came a year later in 1973, which formally summarized the functions and the objectives of the institutes as follows (NTI, 1996).
i. To upgrade under qualified and unqualified teachers
ii. To provide refresher and other upgrading courses for teachers
iii. To organize workshops, seminars and conference that could assist in the improvement of the teachers nationwide.
iv. To conduct national teachers grade II examination
v. To carryout research in conjunction with other bodies on any matter relevant to educational development in the country
vi. Formulate polices and initiate programmes at all levels of education designed to improve by way of research the quality and content of education in Nigeria.
vii. Assess the training programmes offered by the institutions controlled by or associated with the institute with view to ascertaining the professional competence of these institutions
viii. Offer such assistance either or in co-operation in the education of teachers and perform such other functions as are necessary or expedient for the full discharge of all functions as the council under this decree.
Furthermore, in section 7 paragraph 2, the enabling decree no. 7 states:
“Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of …..” the council shall exercise the following powers:
i. To establish and maintain such extra-moral departments and other teaching units within the institution as the council may from time to time decide.
ii. To provide such course of instruction either alone or in association with such universities and other institutions whether in Nigeria or not as may be determined and to conduct examination and aware such diploma and certificate to the council.
iii. To institution and award fellowship, model prizes and other titles.
iv. To mount exhibitions and displays designed to faster appreciation of trends in the scope of the requirement of education.
v. To create, provide, equip and maintain such educational facilities as the institution may require.
vi. To create lectureships and other academic post and offices and to make appointment there to encourage and make provision of research in the institution (NTI, 1999).
In another document, the national policy on education (NPE), the NTI is given the overall responsibilities of co-coordinating the work of the institutions of education and state ministries of education as regards training of teachers on the job (NPE, 1991).
The objective of national teachers institute as highlighted above is based on the functions assigned by the federal government of Nigeria. So far the institute has been advancing in the fulfillment of these mandates in the implementation of the NCE/DLS programme in Ebonyi state.
TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING OR RESOURCES
Instructional materials in teaching or resources are available from many sources. Modern education faces lots of problems. The attempts at solving these problems, which involve the use of, organized combination utilization of people, materials facilities, equipment and procedures to achieve the desired instructional materials in teaching, instructional media and educational media virtually mean the same thing.
They all involve media materials derived from communication revolution, which can be used to promote teaching learning process.
According to Agu Okogbuo (2000) instructional materials in teaching could be classified into:
1. Visual material-such as picture, diagrams buildings, projectors, teachers themselves (s) chart, real objects (realia) studies etc. these materials such as books, newspapers journals, magazines, pamphlets, handout or NTI modules were also involved.
2. Audio materials – such as tape recording cassette, cartridge, radio, dice, teleture, teleconferencing, language laboratories, teachers voice. They appeal to the sense of hearing.
3. Audio-visual materials which include the television, video recording motion pictures with sound tracks, slide and films trips projection with sound tapes, films and multimedia. They appeal to both sense of hearing and sight.
4. Materials/software include graphic materials, printed materials, slide, filmstrips, overhead transparency, tapes cassettes, and motion pictures.
5. Equipment/hardware: examples include: black boards, tape recorders, projectors and video recorders. They are used in presenting materials, static or display such as chalkboard, flannel graph, flip charts, magnetic board are also used in presenting materials or lectures.
6. Electronics: this comprises of radio, computer education, e-mail, multimedia. These teaching materials makes teaching and learning process more easy and concrete.
7. Non-projected media include books and other printed materials, objects, specimens. Models mock-up graphical materials bulletin boards that exhibits black boards, buildings, field trips simulation and games.
8. Two-dimensional instructional materials in teaching include flat pictures, graphs, chat, diagrams posters, conics, cartoons, slides, films, trips and films. They are also non-projected materials with characteristics of being flat and light and may be either in opaque or transparent form. They have length but no height, hence they are 2 dimensional aids.
9. Three-dimensional institutional materials include: models, mock up objects, specimens, laboratories, simulation and games. They are non-projected materials. Characteristically, they have length, breath, height, hence they are called 3 dimensional.
Instructional materials in teaching generally make the teaching process easier. However in order to appreciate the importance of instructional materials in teaching -learning process, Rhert Heinich – et al (2001) consider the reasons for using them. They include to help:
1. Gain and hold the attention of the learner
2. Provide visual aspects to a process or techniques
3. Focus attention on highlight of key points
4. Create impact
5. Facilities the understanding of abstract explanations.
6. Provide a common fretwork of experience to a large number of learners
7. Stimulate reality
With this, instructional materials in teaching help to concretize the learning process. Hoban and Zizzman (2006) stated that the value of audio-visual materials is function of their degree of realism.
The authors arranged various teaching methods in a hierarchy of greater abstraction beginning with the total situation and culminated in words t the top of the hierarchy. These include words, diagram, maps, flat pictures, slide, films, models and objects. For this, total situation involves much concreteness of the teaching-learning situation.
Words only convey little or no concreteness in the teaching-learning process. In effect, the type of instructional materials in teaching used depends on what the tutor wants to demonstrate; for instance, the reasons for media is to create clear idea of something e.g. real object (realia) models as follows:
1. To give visual access to something which may be inaccessible to clarity abstract information which may be difficult to communicate verbally. Examples are model picture, photo, posters and diagrams.
2. To condense large qualities of information e.g. diagram and handout
3. To promote mental activities of students; examples are handout, textbooks, films and picture
4. To teach language pronouncement e.g. audiotapes.
5. To support work of the tutors e.g. sound recordings
Common types of learning resources instructional materials in teaching include the following:
b. Books and other printing materials
d. Real objects
f. Overhead projector
g. Electronics: radio (cassette tape), television, video (cassette recorder (VCR), computer.)
Olahimola (1996) stating different subjects at different levels in the educational system show that instructional materials in teaching, used by tutors serve to concretize abstract concepts and ideas. They make learning more interesting, more real and lively.
At all level of education, instructional materials in teaching are very important in the attainment of desired goal and objectives.
The traditional chalkboard method of teaching involves only the learning sense of hearing and the easily lose of interest after some time. However, the utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation involves not only the sense of hearing but also the sense of sight and touch, looking at educational practices, the Chinese proverb conclude that:
I hear – I forget
I see – I remember
I do – I understand
Kindler (1993) stated that people generally remember;
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they hear and see
70% of what they say and
90% of what they say as they do a thing.
For this reason, it was concluded that instructional materials in teaching ensure more effective learning since the leaner not only hears but also sees and does. Instructional materials in teaching play a very big role in teaching and learning process as enumerated below:
a. It helps the tutors to provide his students with meaningful sources of information.
b. Help the tutors by providing him with means of wildering his students of information
c. Being experts with learning resources in the classroom
d. Allow members of a group or class to share equally the same teaching experience.
e. Provide the tutors means of exposing the students to a wide range of learning activities.
Okwudiba (2005), Nnoli et al; highlighted the function of instructional materials in teaching in the promotion of learning.
I. Provide increased interest in learning
II. Hold the leaner’s attention
III. Provide the leaner with opportunities of interacting with their social and physical environment (excursion)
IV. Offer learners opportunity for independent and individualized learning
V. Supply concepts basis for conceptual thinking
VI. Offer opportunities for leaner to develop their abilities and skills
VII. Promote the acquisition and longer retention of knowledge.
For this point, instructional materials in teaching help to promote the understanding of the teaching learning process among other function.
Good availability and utilization of instructional materials in teaching should be appropriate, free of bias, up tp date, easily obtainable and should not be too expensive. It also leads to more understanding and retentive memory in students in the teaching and learning process.
AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING ENGLISH, SCIENCES, SOCIAL, ETC
Availability of instructional materials in teaching refers to those resources necessary to carry out instructions in our educational institution.
Availability of the resources boosts learning and enhances efficiency in the act of teaching or transmitting knowledge. However, availability of instructional materials in teaching does not guarantee their utilization. Many scholars have stressed the need for instructional materials in teaching to be available if educational objectives can be achieved.
Nworgu (2003) asserted that there could be no effective transmission of instruction without instructional materials in teaching.
Similarly, Robert (1999) had assumed that instructional materials in teaching are prerequisite for effective passing of instruction just as Okey (2000) maintained that availability of instructional materials in teaching are necessary for effective teaching and learning: in the same vein, Agupusi (2003) attributed non-achievement of educational objective to unavailability of instructional materials in teaching and postulated that stakeholders in education should collectively ensure availability of learning especially, teacher training institutions.
Availability of instructional materials in teaching according to the works cited seem to be an indispensable parameter for achieving educational objectives.
This is so because learning is dependent to maximizing hearing in achieving objectives.
No wonder Nwafor (1997) argued that availability of instructional materials in teaching should be a compulsory prerequisite for approving new school garrison (1998) postulated that the level of academic work at NTI learning centre should be determine by the extent of availability of instructional materials in teaching just as Ezeuwa (2005) regretted non-availability of instructional materials in teaching in some distant education centres in Ebonyi State and attributed the trend to the end of education in the country.
Indeed, the importance of instructional materials in teaching is to explain clearly and so can be stressed. It is therefore observed that availability of instructional materials in teaching is a serious indicator in quality assurance in education.
Similarly of instructional materials in teaching helps to boost the morale of education managers whose occupation is to ensure the realization of education objectives in their institution. He regretted that the nation’s educational instructional (levels to him are difficulties associated with the provision of these resources.
In the same vein, Ebele (2000) lamented lack of instructional materials in teaching in our school, since according to him; available ones appear insufficient compared to the venomous usage.
Again, instructional materials in teaching by all extent of availability remains a focal point of researcher, scholars/writers educationalist education manager and indeed all stakeholders in education to maintain standard education invariably will be difficult without adequate resources in the system, both human and materials resources, because they go together as important parameters for sustainable implementation of instructional programmes.
Njoku (1995) in his agreement with the above statement when he described insufficient availability of instructional materials in teaching as a serious setback in achievement of most of the educational objectives.
Abubakar (1999) argued that realization of national educational objectives would remain a mirage until sufficient and adequate instructional materials in teaching are provided for our schools especially for teachers training schools where it is expected that education should be raised.
ADEQUACY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING
Instructional materials in teaching are not only expected to be available to sufficient level to enable teaching and learning properly takes place. In other words, instructional materials in teaching can be available but not adequate enough to cater for the teaching and learning process that leads to expected learning outcome.
Igwe (2004) asserted that instructional materials in teaching should not only be available but adequate enough for utilization. But in recent time scholars and experts have stressed on the need for government, to map out reasonable amount of fund to cater for the provision of adequate instructional materials in teaching which according to him are imperative for achieving educational goals.
In a related development, Onuekwusi (1997) drew a conclusion that most of our educational institutions lack instructional materials in teaching and regretted the harm this has caused the process of teaching and learning.
Again, instructional materials in teaching are known to be capable of achieving educational objectives if found in adequate quantity. It is against this background that this study is poised to critically carryout investigation on extent of adequacy of instructional materials in teaching available to NTI/NCE/DLS study centers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria.
In a related development, Okeke (1998) asserted that instructional materials in teaching when insufficiently available hinders the progress of teaching and learning because of the key roles they play in imparting knowledge.
According to him, schools would not succeed in teaching and learning without adequate instructional materials in teaching. In his own contribution, Obaji (2001) agreed that instructional materials in teaching cannot only be made available but adequately too, since without adequate instructional materials in teaching, educational objectives cannot be achieved.
In the same vein, Ezeuwa observed that adequate instructional materials in teaching were not available in our institution of learning. Resources utilization in the teaching and learning, situation, it is one thing to have learning aids and learning resources, in schools and another to them to proper use.
The teacher who uses them should be able to manipulate and operate the available aids. They should be able to use them to meet the learning needs of a particular learning or group of learners they are dealing with. This is why Uyoata (1995) pointed out that effectiveness of learning materials is determine by the way they are manipulated by teacher or instructors.
They therefore concluded that the knowledge in the use of instructional materials in teaching is very important. Apart from being able to use instructional materials in teaching, they warned that the teachers should be careful not to-misuse instructional aide as this is even more dangerous than not using them.
This explains why Bruise (1993) concluded that a properly equipped classroom is apparently not a panacea for the problem to learning and that a better knowledge of how to use the enriched materials would show greater gain in learner’s learning ability than those who were not equally exposed.
Another ingredient of resources utilization in teaching and learning situation is selection and planning of instructional materials in teaching to be used in any given instructional process. In support of this view Wales (1996) warned that discrimination or up planned use of radio, television, film show or films trips to make lesson more colorful is a complete waste of teachers and pupils time and that this should not make teachers of the class to sit back and relax. He rather advocated for the effective use of the aids to achieve lesson objectives.
Also Bogatz (1996) citing Uyoata (1995) highlighted that influence of the teacher expectances affect instructional materials in teaching analysis on student pre and post test mean scores and revealed that teacher perception of the work of instructional materials in teaching was significant in offering students use of materials.
From the findings of the said study, he advocated that teachers should make realistic judgment and develop a good perception of the material, they should use with learning, hence, there is need to study the available resources for NTI/NCE/DLS teaching and learning programme.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN NCE/NTI/DLS PROGRAMME
The role of instructional materials in teaching become clearer as Olayiwola (1996) summarized the importance of instructional materials in teaching to include:
– Making instruction more powerful and immediate
– Speeding up learning by saving time through scientific mode of instruction.
– Enrichment of teaching and curriculum and making instruction scientific.
The author further added that it is worthwhile for teachers to utilize them in day-to-day instruction. In the same vein, NTI (1996) FGN/UNICEF (1993) in her situation and policy analysis (SAPA) report, pointed out that the quality of learning is determined among other things by.
– The curriculum content
– The instructional processed
– The competence of the teacher and the availability of instructional materials in teaching.
Also UNESCO (1962), writing on the need to use learning resources, stated the importance of instructional materials in teaching to includes:
– Inspiring student to be curious in learning
– Serving to make concepts more read to students
– Serving as a source of finding answers to questions
In his own view, Onyejemezi (1991) maintained that one of the principles teachers have to continually bear in mind is that man learns through his sense. To some, seeing is believing and to others the sense of touch, hearing, smell and taste dominate in acquiring knowledge for intended learning to take place.
The teacher must communicate effective communication process that enhance speedy understanding, a wide range of choice of channel of transmitting his message to the student must be selected also justifying the importance of instructional materials in teaching.
Berkey (1996) wrote that rational selection of instructional materials in teaching is a necessary step for effective teaching. He further added that the ability to select and utilize methods and materials are important qualities of a master of professional teacher. He outlines the criteria for selecting resources are as follows:
1. Instructional objective to be achieved by students
2. The teaching resources available for use
3. The characteristics of students to be taught
4. The teacher’s ability and experience
In the same vein, Invensor (1997) recommended the use of instructional material in schools for effective teaching and said further that premium should be paid on the use of audio-visual aids in teaching in order to stir the spirit of observation, inquiry, experimenting and findings out facts. In his conclusion, he recommended the adoption of problem solving method of teaching in preference to chalk and talk. In related development, Mekeanshiel (1998) asserted that his attempting to assess teaching effectiveness have led him to think that availability of teaching, resources more than any other thing in learning process is more effective.
It determine student rate of learning. Still supporting the vital role of instructional materials in teaching, Vernon (1999) opined that the availability of instructional material enhance productivity hence learning.
Adeniyi (2001) declared that the purpose of using teaching aids and material is to communicate more permanent information that are incidental to the process of teaching because facts and information are retained better when supplemented with aids. He further added that it is most certain, that if materials are carefully selected and skillfully used, they make earning more meaningfully.
The centrality of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation is so convincing that Assenugo (1991) said that if any subject is to be taught well, it should be taught practically while Burne (1990) asserted that the use of teaching aids by the teacher in the course of teaching should be strictly adhered to, for learning to be result oriented and teaching more effective.
Similarly, NTI (1994) commenting on the importance of teaching aids in programmes asserted that teaching aids are important because they help learners understand the language used, and interest, colour and variety to the lesson. This it explained motivates learners and allows for individual differences in learning styles.
Also writing on the importance of resources Njoku (1997) stresses the need for resources materials for the expansion of knowledge. He noted that even though textbooks, and classroom teaching supply the care of instruction the school library materials and other resources which include non-book material can supplement and extend the education career of children, girl child and learners generally.
Butter and Wren (1998) stated that most people gain new impression more readily and vividly through multi-sensory experience than they do through reading and abstract reasoning. This further buttresses the point that learning through sensory experience is the most natural way of learning which makes a permanent impression in the learners.
Commenting specifically on the facilities necessary for a successful performance in the programme. Bankole (1996) noted that well equipped library is required for effective teaching and learning in the programme. He further explained that schools libraries provide books and others useful materials for school educational programme and that it helps the learners to develop interest in reading and stimulating their interest in many other subjects.
This idea coincides with Paker and Datty (1998) who postulated that films strips should be included in the teaching aids used in teaching courses in the programme. In a related study by Lacey (1992) on film, he maintained that film is part of a widening movement towards sensitivity training in its broadest positive meaning in the teaching and learning programme.
It is as a result of these roles that this study has focused on instructional materials in teaching of all courses to ascertain its availability and utilization in the teaching programme of NTI in Eboynyi State.
However, Nwalor (2004) argued that it is difficult for effective teaching and learning to take place without relevant and adequate instructional materials in teaching and called for their improvement where they are not available in their original form, while Awe (2000) opined that for teaching and learning to succeed, the teacher must ensure availability and utilization of instructional materials in teaching (materials and human).
He suggested that all stakeholders in education should see to it that instructional materials in teaching are duly put in place to enhance effective teaching and learning. Nwafor (1997) asserted that availability of instructional materials in teaching does not guarantee their utilization and called on teachers to be up and doing in the classroom especially with regards to proper utilization of needed resources as a means of realizing the objectives in view.
ATTITUDE OF COURSE TUTORS
Under the NTI/NCE/DLS, the course tutors are the personnel that have the direct and face-to-face contact with distant learners. Their attitude like those of the teachers generally in the teaching profession cannot be said to be different.
Uyoata (1995) in his study of resources utilization in nursery school, Calabar, Cross river state, observed that teachers have poor attitude towards the use of the instructional aides even where there are few available ones.
Obi (2003) in his own view described as poor, teaching and learning situations in our schools and attributed this to lack of adequate instruction resources aid, poor utilization of available ones.
Olayiwole (1996) while drawing inference from ACE series (1990) noted that despite the basic assumptions about the application of instruction material and of course resources generally in teaching, they are seldom used as teaching materials. He also observed that teachers have haphazard or indifferent approach to materials and of course educational resources generally.
Nwagwu (2004) said that instructional materials in teaching available to our school, especially at primary and secondary school level were hot learning needs of the schools. He called for the utilization of instructional materials in teaching in the school.
Also Hallak (1991) commenting on teaching as a priority for planning teacher supply and demand predicated a bleak future for any educational system that neglects the welfare of its teachers. This presupposes that attitude of teachers generally regarding commitment to the job is negative due to poor condition of service. Of course, one of the major jobs in teaching still remains the manipulation of resources by learning.
In a related study, federal government of Nigeria (1993) in its SAPA reported that the attitude of teacher towards teaching as a profession is generally negative due to a number of factors paramount among them is the condition of teaching service in Nigeria. This negative attitude as it were, must definitely affect the manipulation of resources in the teaching/learning/situation in the school.
Onyemezi (1991) listed a number of reasons identified by teachers as being responsible for non use of or under utilization of the available resources in the school as:
1. The resources are not well organized in the school and there are no resource persons and centres.
2. As a result of one above, the available resources are not accessible to the classroom teachers who must use them.
3. Lack of support and encouragement from the ministry of education.
From the on going, the researcher concluded that the NTI/NCE/DLS curriculum operates in a similar precarious Nigeria educational environment, the negative attitude of its teacher as in the conventional school systems, and more so, those course tutors are teachers recruited from the conventional schools.
The finding of this study will help us to affirm if the teachers effectively use instructional materials in teaching or not.
A study conducted by Ndem (2000) titled availability and utilization of resources for the programme instruction in NCE programme and of the national teachers institute in Enugu state, investigated the extent and scope of utilization resources in national teachers institute, Enugu. The study was aimed at covering the NCE/DLS study centers. Categories of resource subjects were used for the study and one category consisted of thirteen (13) course tutors. The second category of respondent included four center supervisors from the four NTI/NCE/DLS study centers in Enugu state.
Third category consists of one hundred and fifty one (151) students. Fourth category consists of two external moderators of the national teachers institute Enugu.
The result of the study revealed that the available instructional facilities in NTI/NCE/DLS study centers in Enugu state are lecture hall/roms, seats, course books, material/course outline/contents, charts and diagram, library facilities, shapes and models, radio. The resources not available are film slide, video cassette, teaching machine and overhead projector.
The available support services are:
weekend/vacation, tutor, contact sessions, practical demonstration, counseling services, teaching modules (mainly used by NTI)resource persons, tutors, marked assignment and test, the available instructional facilities that are adequate are: lecture hall/rooms, shapes, models and facilities.
The ones that are inadequate are: course books materials, charts, diagrams and radio seven out of the eight available instructional facilities are frequently used. Three out of five support services are frequently utilized.
Ajodo (2002) studies perceived strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary school in Benue state using questionnaire as instrument. Here three research questions were formulated to guide his study.
The sample size of 300 teachers was used for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the study. He came out with the following three findings.
1. That with adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching in the secondary schools, teaching and learning will be effective.
2. The few available instructional materials in teaching were effectively utilized.
3. There is effective commitment among authorities and teachers in the schools.
Uche (1990) carried out studies on availability and the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching for social studies in secondary schools in Enugu urban of the Anambra state. The researcher used questionnaire as instrument for data collection.
The findings of the study were as follows:
a. The quality and quantity of instructional materials in teaching for social studies in Enugu urban are inadequate.
b. Some resources are more available than the others.
c. Available resources are not effectively utilized.
d. Availability of resources does not guarantee their utilization
e. Most teachers who teach social studies do not posses any qualification in social studies
Although instructional materials in teaching could be available to our schools, most secondary school principals do not effectively utilize them, he or she will park them in boxes or cupboards in order for the principal to give account of those materials when transferring out from the school.
In a related development, Awoyele (1997) carried out an analysis of resources allocated to junior secondary schools in Ogun state using educational resources allocating checklist as instrument. Here three-research questions were formulated to guide his study. Also mean and standard deviation were used to analyze his study.
His findings include:
1. Of all the physical resources allocated to the junior secondary school, only classroom spaces were adequate
2. The quantity of the teaching staff allocated to Ogun state public secondary schools was inadequate..
3. The operational cost allocated to run Ogun state junior secondary schools was inadequate.
Attama (2004) carried out study on management of instructional materials in teaching in the secondary schools in Nsukka zone of Enugu state.
The population of her study was 50 principals of secondary schools in Nsukka zone.
Questionnaire was the major instrument used in collecting data for the study. Questions posed were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while null hypothesis were analyzed using square.
The study made the following findings:
1. Instructional materials in teaching are available in the secondary school.
2. Available instructional resource are inadequate
The above findings have again added to the findings earlier on made that although instructional materials in teaching are available, they are not adequate.
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING PROCESS