CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Bread is a vital supply of food in Nigeria. it’s consumed extensively in homes, restaurants and hotels. Bread is formed from low macromolecule wheat. it always contains many ingredients that may facilitate improve the standard of the bread. a number of the fundamental known ingredients, except flour square measure common salt, sugars, flavors and a minimum of a flour improver like atomic number 19 bromate (Vicki, 1997).
The major challenge in each flour edge trade and bakeries is that the baking quality of flour, that is decided by the capability of the dough ready from it to retain gas. As a results of wide variations within the composition of flour, numerous treatments and supplements acquisition agents (flour/bread improvers) square measure value-added for strength throughout combination, extensibility for molding and conjointly to extend loaf volume and texture. Over the years, many improvers are used however studies have shown some to be harmful to health, thereby necessitating their ban. the employment of atomic number 19 bromate has been a typical alternative among flour miller and bakers throughout the globe as a result of it’s low-cost and possibly the foremost economical oxidiser. It acts as a slow oxidiser throughout the fermentation proofing and
baking method touching the structure and also the natural philosophy properties of the dough. As a result, several bakeries use atomic number 19 bromate as AN additive to help within the raising method and to supply a texture within the finished product that’s appealing to the general public.
Potassium bromate has adverse impact on health and its health effects square measure divided into 2 classes. the primary class deals with impacts associated with non cancer effect.
This includes its impact on the biological process quality of bread. It degrades vitamins A2, B1, B2, E and B-complex vitamin that square measure the most vitamins offered in bread (IARC, 1999).
Studies (IARC, 1999) have shown important variations in essential carboxylic acid content of flour treated with bromate or in bread made up of flour containing bromate.
In humans, atomic number 19 bromate will cause cough and raw throat once inhaled (Atkins, 1993). Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, renal disorder, deafness, cartilaginous tube and ocular issues, square measure a number of the opposite non cancer health issues related to uptake of atomic number 19 bromate (Atkins, 1993). within the second class, various studies have discovered the potential of atomic number 19 bromate to cause cancer in experimental animals and in humans (CSPI, 1999; Watson, 2000). In bromate as bread improver has been prohibited (Ekop et al., 2008; http://www.compassnews.net). In Nigeria but, some bread makers/bakeries have continuing to incorporate atomic number 19 bromate in their bread.
Furthermore, a preliminary survey discovered that another materials utilized in bread creating (e.g. water) and also the environments wherever these bakeries square measure set aren’t free from contamination by serious metals like lead. it’s against this background that this investigation was undertaken in jap a part of Nigeria wherever bread consumption is extremely high and wherever several of the bakeries square measure set within the inside of slums and squartments. This study thus is geared toward assessing the protection of bread being marketed within the Nigerian market.

1.2 STATEMENT OF the matter
Following the harmful effects atomic number 19 bromated posses on shoppers, the harmful substance was prohibited in 1993 by the Federal Ministry of Health. atomic number 19 bromate (KBrO3) is AN oxidiser that has been used as a artificial additive, chiefly within the bread-making method. it’s been incontestible that atomic number 19 bromate induces excretory organ cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the serous membrane, and cyst cell tumors of the thyroid. additionally, experiments geared toward elucidating the mode of malignant neoplastic disease action have discovered that atomic number 19 bromate may be a complete substance, possessing each initiating and promoting activities for rat excretory organ tumorigenesis.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to analyze into the harmful effects of atomic number 19 bromated in bread. Specific objectives of the study are:

to investigate the impact of potassium-bromate in bread.
to look at the toxicity of atomic number 19 bromated in bread workplace.

1.4 analysis queries
In-order to attain the expressed objectives on top of, the man of science formulate the subsequent analysis questions:

What square measure the results of atomic number 19 bromated on bread?
what’s the amount of toxicity atomic number 19 bromated posses within the production of bread?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study can facilitate enlighten the plenty in addition as bread shoppers on the harmful effects of atomic number 19 bromated. The study can sensitize readers on why they used facilitate fight against workplace house owners that also use atomic number 19 bromated as AN ingredient within the production of bread.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the results of atomic number 19 bromated and its harmful effects on human health mistreatment samples of bread from Enugu state in jap Nigeria. The man of science couldn’t cowl a wider space because of money and time constraints.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
However, there have been some constraints that impinged on the analysis, these are;

money constraint: the price of sourcing data and collection samples of bread was quite on the high aspect, including visiting numerous little businesses within the numerous cities that created up the regime.
Time Constraint: The restricted timeframe given to attain the analysis was conjointly a constraint to the study.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bread may be a staple food ready by baking a dough of flour and water. it’s standard round the world and is one among the world’s oldest foods.
Flour may be a powder that is formed by grinding cereal grains, or different seeds or roots (like Cassava). it’s the most ingredient of bread, that may be a staple food for several cultures, creating the supply of adequate provides of flour a serious economic and political issue at numerous times throughout history

A tumour as a word for a tumor (a solid or fluid-filled [cystic] lesion which will or might not be shaped by AN abnormal growth of growth cells) that seems enlarged in size.
Potassium bromate is created by passing Br into an answer of potash. AN industrial electrolytic method is employed for big scale production.