CHAPTER ONE

1.1      Background of the Study

Organization and Method techniques was originally introduced by the early pioneers of scientific fathers of management (Taylor & Gibreth) which work was influenced, the early approaches and establishment of the functions in various organization (Apply, 1998).

Organization and methods is the application of work study to clerical activities, notifications and arrivals, the procedures for preparing wages, purchases, credit and debit of accounting system etc. Various method can be used to improve such system and procedures.

It’s essential to agree at the outsets on the exact objects and shops of an assignments, and in doing so, make a primary survey before the term of references are drawn up, its also necessary to plan the assignments in relation to other work requiring the organization and method techniques, the recording of facts is based on observation, the clerical examination of the facts will lead the investigator on to conclusion which he must formulate as hypotheses and then test. Accordingly, in this way the investigator study the effects of changes and their practicabilities.

Organization and methods has transformed into a very valuable components of an organization, in facts its become a specialized fields wilt career prospects, especially for our teaming unemployment, it provide opportunities that are both challenging and satisfactory to the average intellectual employees to prove his worth in improving and process.

Briscoe (1992) believed, that it is essentially a specialist function, which has primary objectives of improving efficiency and control in organizations, it thus seen as an essential functions that should be parts of the make up of any organization. Organization and Method associated techniques can be seen to form the basis of Business process, re-engineering and business process improvements.

British Standard (3.5) 3138.1001 defined organization and method “as a systematic examination of activities, in order to improve the effective uses of human and other material resources” it has equally been defined by Appleby (1998) as a “section of specialized staff which investigates system in an office and tries to re-design and replace them with more efficient or economical system”.

Harzel (2001) sees organization and method as the “application of work study techniques to the structure and procedures of an organization in order to improve the efficiency of organizational system”.

Organizational and method techniques is mostly importantly introduced so as to improve the administrative procedures and of the clerical practices in an organizations. Therefore, it is important  for us to know the meaning of the organization.

Organization is a “consciously coordinated social unit made of unit made up of two or more people with defined formal patterns of relationships and communication system that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieves their personal and common goals and sets of objectives (A.G. Ediba, 1997:14).

Nwachukwu (1988):69) sees organization as an entity example church, hospital or clubs. This can be seen as a process of coordinating individual efforts to accomplish a common objectives. And also a group of people bound together to provide unity of action for achievement of a predetermined objectives.

Organization can be used to mean different things at different times, it can mean the basic framework within which executives makes their decision, also is the grouping of activities so that the enterprise’s objectives can be attained, the assignments of these activities is to appropriate departments and making provision for delegation, coordination and authority (Adaji & Ugwuanyi, 2012).

Organization “is a cooperative and coordination of social system of two or more people with a common purpose (Anonymous).

Organization does not derives its meaning by sizes. It has it, as one of their objectives, the production of goods and services or delivery of services to clients, customers, business associates and the general public, in achieving this objectives, serious consideration must be given to efficiency, effectiveness and product quality in order to maximize both profit and service delivery. More so, dynamic development in both the internal as well as the external environments of the business require organizations to continuously find better ways of not only guaranteeing their survival but ensure they remain relevant in the industries (Chapter One, meaning and scope of Organization and Method, Anonymous).

While techniques is said to be “a way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of artistic work or a scientific procedures (Wikipedia, 05/04/2013).

A techniques is a procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or task of a systematic method of obtaining information of a scientific nature (Wikipedia, 8 March 2013:21:07).

A techniques is a systematic procedure, formula or routing by which a task is accomplished (www.businessdictionary.com/definition).

1.2      Statement of the Problem

Organization and Method techniques is considered as the application of work study to clerical activities, it is mainly concerned with system and procures such as procedures for preparing billing advices, notifications and arrivals, wages procedures, purchasing, credit and debit of accounting system etc. Various method of organization and method can be used to improve this method (Arab British Academy for Higher Education).

Significantly, organization and method techniques aims at improving an organization in so many ways, such as: introductions of new methodology of recording procedural, electrical and technological methods, method of training and developments, making a systematic primary survey before the term of references are drawn, it is used for work planning on assignment in relation to other work requiring organization and method services, which the records of facts are based on observation, which the critical examination of the facts will lead to conclusion (Arab British Academy for higher education).

Making best uses of manpower for taking the organization to a higher height, Organization and Method techniques coordinate in the house training programmes for staff members and the recommended ones to various training institution. In the country, workforce for keeping them abreast of the latest developments in the area of profession, concerned the areas of record managements, retention etc (India Institute of Technology ND).

The major challenges of organization and method techniques in an organization are many, among which are captured are: inadequate knowledge of organization and method techniques (M.B. Aliyu, 2007). However, this bridge or gap in the organization and method techniques could be one of the major reason why developing areas will not succeed in progressing.

Shetima (2010) opined in his investigation, “losses of documents as a second constraint for the officers in the area, Kaduna North Local Government area, and poor documentations as third challenges in the organization (M.B. Aliyu, 2007).

Alonso (1960) many nations, region, organization and the world would be severely limited in developed when there is employee’s low performances.

The question to be asked here is that, is it the poor knowledge of the organization and method techniques that lead to low employee’s performances and losses of documents. Or at the same time, if every officers in area (Kaduna North Local Government) will be equipped with the knowledge of organization and methods techniques, will it result to a higher heights of employee’s performances and proper documentations, which will lead to effective decision making in the area?

It is against this background that the research embarked on this study.

1.3      Objective of the Study

The major objectives/aims of this study is to investigate the application of organization and method techniques with a particular reference to the area, Kaduna North Local Government in which the investigator intends to identify an answer to the issues of techniques, in the area of study (Kaduna North) therefore the specific objectives are:

i)                  To find out the problems that leads of knowledge of organization and method techniques can result to.

ii)                To determine a way of providing the knowledge of organization and method techniques to organizational workers.

iii)             To find out whether or not the knowledge of organization and method will result to high employees performances in the organization.

1.4      Research Hypotheses

In carrying out this investigation, consequently, the following hypotheses were postulated:

1.        H0:      Organization and Method Techniques does not improve the processes of record keeping and documentation in the organization.

H1:      Organization and method techniques improves the processes of record keeping and proper documentations in the organizations.

2.        H0:      Organization and Method techniques does not encourage quick decision making process and effective responses to business issues.

H­1:      Organization and methods techniques encourage quick decision making processes and response to business operations issues.

1.5      Significance of the Study

The existence of every organizations has some degrees of dependency to how the organization is being managed. Therefore, the significance of this research is educate the organizational workers in the area Kaduna North Local Government area, on how organization and methods techniques can affect performance.

It is also the significance of this research to find out the problems that may likely take place as a result of organization and method and provisions of solutions to such, to save and as a references to organizational employees and other researchers.

1.6      Scope of the Study

The most important parts of this research is the application of organization and method techniques.

In the course of this research, the researcher intends to limit the study to Kaduna North Local Government area, this means that the case study area is a large one.

This research project lasted about 6 months. Instead of 3 months or four, that is due to the ASUP strikes, everything been equal, the life (Time) spend of these research is as from the month of March – September 2012 as the school season is reading.

1.7      Limitation of the Study

It is difficult to say that, in any research work at this nature, it does not encounter any constraint, during this research work, the researcher encounters problem such as:

Firstly, it was time constraint which has to do with the clash of my lecture period at the same time with my project class, and also the ASUP strike which hinder my programmes.

Most of the interviewee in Kaduna North especially at the secretariat where every busy to the extents we have to reappointment over and over again, before issuing of questionnaires, and also the issues of their payroll where counts to be officials, no time to pay relatives and friends a visit, it is also another time factors in this research work.

Finally, financial problems as a students and also an orphan, I found it very difficult to, transport myself to the school and other place as a means of sources of data for the research, cost of living, stationary, cost of typing all these cost makes the research work very expensive.

1.8      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Kaduna North is a local government area in Kaduna state, Nigeria, headquarters are in the town of Doka, it has an area of 72 km2 and a population of 357694 as at the 2006 census. The post code of the area is 700.

The area has a mixed of population, but the major dominants ethnic groups are the Hausas, the major religion is Islam, the local government is under the jurisdiction of Zazzau emirate. Hence the people consider themselves Zazzegawa (NIPOST Retrieved 2009-10-20).

The area comprises of 626 hectares f land area, and it comprises of the following districts: (a) Doka, (b) gabassawa (c) Kawo; and (d) Ungwan Shanu. The local government was introduced in 1991 from the former Kaduna local government, it is centered within the state (Kaduna) bordered by Chikun local government of the South-eastern of the state, at the South west as well as Igabi local government area (North west)

The name was derived from (Kadna) the crocodile at the beginning stages, this is due to the dominance of crocodiles in the only river that flows across Kaduna from Kangimi River.

The plural of crocodile in Hausa language was “Kaduna” which was called crocodile and the state was name after the plural of crocodile in the Hausa language; it became a garrison town (a number of soldier for guarding a fortress, town etc).

And been an administrative center for colonialism and capital of regional government in 1966, under the leadership of Sardauna “Sir Ahmadu Bello”.

The Secretariat is “Magajin Gari” was named after Abdullahi Sambo Magajin Zazzau in Kaduna, it was under the control of Zaria Native authority, the Emirate of Zaria said Mallam Abdullah Sambo as his representative in the establishment of Kaduna North as requested by the Lord Luggard.

Traditional Settlement

Kaduna was under the control of Zaria Natives as earlier mentioned, therefore Lord Luggard request the Emir to send one of this title chiefs to represents him in the establishment of the province in the Northern region of which Mallam Abdullahi Sambo was sent to represent the Emir, the Magajin Garin Zazzau.

For the purpose of bringing Kaduna together with political complexity, the districts head of Kaduna are under the royal kingdom of Zazzau. Although they are employees of Kaduna North local government, this indicates clearly that they are in one way or the other not under the traditional council of chiefs.

The Local Government consist of three districts

S/N Districts

District Head

Title
1 Doka Alh. Sidi Yaro Birnin Zazzau
2 Gabasawa Alh. Jibrin Muhammed Dan Kanden Zazzau
3 Kawo Alh. Muhammed S. Magaji Dan Makwayau Zazzau

 

Under the districts, there are certain area which comprises the following:

a)                Doka comprises of Liman, Mai, Buriji, Gaji, Kabala

b)                Gabasawa comprises of: U/Rimi, U/Kudu, Kawo, Rafin Guza, Malali, Badarawa, U/Kanawa/ U/Shanu/ U/dosa, Abakwa and Hayin Banki.

Forest Reserves

Do to industrial building and being an urban area, Kaduna North Local Government have no provision for forest reserves.

Agricultural and Natural Resources

Kaduna North play an important roles in the production and encourage of agricultural/natural resources such as fertile land, streams and rivers.

The Dominant Tribes

Gwari, Hausas and Fulani are the redominants of Kaduna, there are other various settlers from different tribes in the state and the countries are also found, tribes like Yoruba, Idoma, Calabar, Igbo and Igala etc are also the settlers in the area.

Social Aspect

The social and education facilities of the town have also undergone improvements with the establishments of more primary, second, post secondary and adult classes institution in Kaduna Township, the level of education has improved tremendously.

Housing

There are two types of housing in the area, these comprises of: The modern houses such as government reserves area (GRA) and the federal housing. The traditional houses are: the state housing and the estate housing which are situated at various location within the town (local government).

Economic

The non existing capital and infrastructural facility of past years are being tackled for Kaduna local government, the LGAs are trying to mobilize and direct the labour of the people towards the currents friend of meaningful economic development, the economic developments and sound economic productivities.

The area is very unique, in the sense that it is the capital area of the state, the local government areas has a commercial industries centered within the state.

All of these factors taken together largely contributes to the cosmopolitan (belonging to all parts of the world) nature at the area and its mixed settlements patterns.

1.9      DEFINITION OF TERMS

Application: Can be defined as the uses of a technological system or products in other to ease work (www.webopedia.com). Application can be formal request to an authority for something and the action or processes of making such a request (Dictionary.com).

Organization: Organization is a consciously coordinated social units made up of two or more people with defined formal patterns of relationship and communication systems that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve their personal and common goals and sets of objectives (Ediba, 1997).

Method: Can be defined as a systematical procedure for accomplishing a job/work (Merriam Webster). Method can also said to be an establishment habitual, logical or prescribed practice or systematic process of achieving goals (Businessidiconary.com/define).

Techniques: Is a systematic procedure, formula or routing by which a task is accomplished (www.b.dictionary.com).