Organizations have made several efforts to satisfy their customers by determining the right quality, quantity, price and time. Quality products and customers service integral part in all organization activities. In today’s global competitive market place, customer demands are ever changing, as they require improved quality of product and services. In most markets, there is an increasing demand of product and services that are competitively and qualitatively priced. Ensuring that products and services brought and made are of the highest quality is an essential part of the purchasing manager’s responsibility. Purchasing managers interest in quality is on the premise that you buy the right quality, you will produce the right quality.
Whenever the word quality is mentioned, people associate it with a different meaning and connotations. To many it means, “merit, perfection durability, excellent performance, fitness desirability etc while to others, they associate it with the product or services they can afford.
The term quality is derived from the Latin word “quails” which means “just or such as they really is”. Such quality has no ideal meaning accept as it relate to functional and its ultimate cost, we can view it from the purchasing perspective as it relate to suitability and cost. In other words, emphasis is more intrinsic than extrinsic excellence. Thus quality control explains a system of monitory to ensure that materials, system process and end products meet up to desired level of acceptance. Any effort made by management to ensure that quality of materials and services meet specification is quality control.
Quality control is a technique by which organizations use to achieve its objective of providing quality product at profitable rate. Due to goals and objective of most organization, the development of effective performance and continues improvement is imperative. Therefore consideration must be given to quality control. The role of the management function in quality control is to provide the framework for bringing together the important business goals and continuous improvement in quality of performance of all process and activities involved in ensuring the standard of achieving customer satisfaction and loyalty. Quality control is an exercise that does not end in manufacturing, quality without regards to other areas is a myth. It should be a total quality effect and cost in the entire product cycle covering design, manufacture and usage of product.
Quality control is used to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It might include whatever actions a business deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of characteristics of a product or service. Most often, it involves thoroughly examining and testing the quality of products or the result of service.
To this regards, it is evident that the importance of quality cannot be overemphasized since a significant percentage of the causes and failure and eventual winding up of most organization is traceable to poor quality control, most organization has been attributed to the production of low quality product; because no individual will want to buy something that cannot perform the main purpose to which it is meant for.
There is also the need for employing professional quality control staff so as to ensure adequate consistency of quality and output the measurement of product and service set standard is control, good quality material leads to lower cost due to less reworks and wastages. This will be in turn reduce manufacturing cost and also improve customer’s goodwill.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The main aim of any firm among other aims is to produce the best product that can satisfy its customers and making of profit. It is important because quality of product may be defined in terms of its degree of goodness, features, in terms of its types and kind, a lot of problems are faced by manufacturing firms.
Problems of meeting product specification often at times product fail to meet the specification required by customers because of causes like improper setting of machine, manpower, operational error and the use of defective materials.
Problems of variation in quality product most manufacturing organization that produce by mass production on machine repeatedly produce with consciously varying quality of the products because of lack of proper quality control in place.
If a product is to meet customers expectation, then it is necessary to establish a standard for the appearance respect of their product as well as their durability requirements for setting up a quality control department in order to ensure that standards are strictly maintained.
These emphases should be on prevention rather than detection of error, the attainment of suitable quality depends on the appropriate human performance or behaviour when the product is been manufactured, a quality control manager should be adequately remunerated so as to perform his work very well so as not to compromise standard.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The central objective of this study is to examine material quality control as a tool for cost reduction. The specific objectives are:
i) To identify the quality of materials available in Nigeria Breweries Plc.
ii) To know the importance of quality control in a manufacturing organization to the organization and to the customers.
iii) To identify method of inspection used in Nigeria Breweries.
iv) To identify the factors used in accessing the supplies in Nigeria Breweries.
v) To determine the effects of quality control on cost reduction.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This research study will be limited to information gathered from Nigeria Breweries Plc located at Makera Kaduna South, it is also restricted to the sample size of the study and also to quality control of materials in the organization as a tool for cost reduction and attaining standards of customers test.
1.5 Research Questions
i) What is the quality of materials available in the organization?
ii) What are the importance of quality control the organization?
iii) What key factors does the organization use in assessing its suppliers?
iv) What method of inspection does the organization adopt?
v) What are the effects of quality control on cost reduction?
1.6 Definition of Terms
Materials: These are intermediate goods, raw materials and component part kept in the store house for use.
Quality: This is simply the ability of a product or service to conform to customers’ expectation in terms of performance and durability.
Control: This is the process of compelling events to conform to plan.
Quality Control: The measurement of products and service against set standards.
Cost: The amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred on or attributable to a specified thing or activity.
Inspection: This is the verification of the quality and quantity of incoming materials.
Standard: It is a level of quality that is normal or acceptable for a particular situation.
Standardization: This means the extent to which there is absence of variety in product.
Defective: They are products which have developed some defects or imperfection during manufacturing process.
Cost reduction: Is a process used by companies to reduce their cost and increase their profits.
Material Control: Is the regulation of the functions of an organization relating to procurement, storage and usage of materials.