Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic, gram-positive coccus, which appears as grape- like clusters when viewed through a microscope, and has a large, round, golden yellow colonies, often with heamolysis, when grown on blood agar plates. (Ryan and Ray, 2004).
The name Staphylococcus comes from the Greek staphlye, meaning a bunch of grapes, and kokkos, meaning berry. The golden appearance is the etymological root of the bacterium’s name; aureus means “golden” in Latin. Staphylococcus aureus is catalase positive. They produce catalase, coagulase and an extracellular cell clumping factor. Also some strains produce capsules. S.aureus are commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people.(Matthew et al; 1997).
Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a baterium responsible for several difficulty to treat infection’s in humans. It is also called methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which includes the penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, etc) and the cephalosporins. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The development of such resistance does not cause the organism to be more intrinsically virulent than strains of staphylococcus aureus that have no antibiotics resistance, but resistance dose make MRSA infection more difficulty to treat with standard types of antibiotics and thus more dangerous (zinderman et al; 2004).
MRSA is especially troublesome in hospital and nursing homes, where patient with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune system are at greater risk of infection than the general public. MRSA strains are becoming increasingly prevalent in community- acquired infections.
A recent study by the translational genomics research institute showed that nearly half (47%) of the meat and poultry in U.S grocery stores were contaminated with S. aureus with more than half (52%) of those bacteria resistant to antibiotics (Ogston, 2000).
S. aureus most commonly colonize the anterior nares (the nostril). The rest of the respiratory tract, open wounds, intravenous catheters, and the urinary tract are also potential sites for infection. Healthy individuals may carry MRSA asymptomatically for periods ranging from a few weeks to many years. Patients with compromised immune systems are at a significantly greater risk of symptomatic secondary infection (kazakova et al; 2005).
1.1 Aims And Objectives
To access the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples in Hospital.
In view of its involvement in nosocomial and community acquired Staphylococcus infections.
To proffer alternative choices of antibiotic agents that can be used in the treatment of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection because of the serious limits to treatment options posed by the spread of MRSA in the clinical environment. To create an awareness of the existence of MRSA and provide safety precaution and control measures against infection by MRSA strains.
Though the presence of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been reported in many hospitals, it is necessary to do a through Job to check for its presence and prevalence within our hospital and locality. This will help us to prevent its spread and possibly eradicate its from our hospital environment.
Also the importance of studying multi drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus includes the virulence, rapid transmissibility, and the very limited treatment options for MRSA infection.
Furthermore, it is of paramount importance to epidemiologists who need the data for their work and also medical Laboratory scientist and other health workers who are at higher risk of being infected with such strains whenever they are found in the hospital.