Every organization exists to accomplish a particular objective with the use of the available resources, which is the ‘4Ms’ Money, Machine, Material and Man. The need to put in place structures and measures to ensure the appropriate and efficient use of these resources becomes a necessity. Weihrich and Koontz (1987), assert that ‘Management is a process of designing and maintaining and environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplished selected aims’. According to Maslow (1984), leadership is the relationship between two or more people in which one of them attempts to influence others and channel their efforts and behaviour towards the attainment of desired group objectives or goals.

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. In the same vein, Price (2000), defines leadership as a ‘dynamic process in a group, whereby one individual influences others to contribute voluntarily to the achievement of group task in a given situation’. Leaders implement this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skill. The process of leadership as exhibited by a good and resourceful leader includes the following:

  • Establishing a clear vision
  • Sharing that vision with others so they will follow willingly
  • Providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision; and
  • Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.

Leadership involves a complex interaction among the leader, the followers and the situation. Some scholars define leadership in terms of personality and physical traits, while others believe that leadership is represented by a set of prescribed behavior. One common ground of agreement among these scholars is that leadership is about social influence that is, situation where people follow their leaders willingly base on the believe they have in the leaders and the values the leader possessed. Leaders have two main roles: first, they must achieve their tasks; secondly, they have to maintain effective relationships between themselves and the group and the individuals in it. Leadership must be present at all levels of the organization. It depends on a million little things done with obsession, consistently and care, but all of this million little things add up to nothing if the trust, vision and basic belief are not there.

Organizational leadership is about management leadership by itself is transformative, it is about shifting priorities in workers and creating followers through the articulation of a vision. However, when leadership is embedded within an organization, the definition changes to leadership within, rather than above, the organization and therefore becomes management or even better supervision. The definition of organizational leadership has three general attributes:

i)            Setting the direction and the tone of the organization is the most central ingredient. This concerns strategic planning, based around very specific and achievable goals.

ii)          Organizational performance management is equally important in that the organization, as it changes must be continually assessed. This means the organization must be constantly supervised and weak points identified.

iii)        The definition of organization leadership must include the concept of change slowly bringing an organization from its static state to dynamisms is an important leadership role, and this requires continually changing roles and the concept of roles within an organization.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Human resource of all the resources of any organization is complex, challenging and difficult to understand, manage, control and lead because they differ in personality, values, perceptions, emotions, attitudes, motives and mode of thoughts. Therefore leading and managing these groups of people (human resource) constitute an arduous task that requires effective leadership ability and capacity to handle. However, the significance of effective leadership towards the management of human behaviour in today’s institutions is rarely understood.

For National Board for Technical Education to actualize its vision statement, that is, “to uphold the ideals of a free, united and egalitarian society and promote good quality technical and vocational education; a system that is flexible and accessible to all for the purpose of producing competent and relevant technological manpower needed for sustainable national development” need to assess the significant of effective leadership in achieving organizational goals.

National Board for Technical Education is also faced with the tasks of transforming her mission statement “to promote the production of skilled/semi-skilled technical and professional manpower, to revitalize and sustain the national economy, reduce unemployment and poverty through the setting and maintenance of high standards, provision of current and reliable information for planning and decision making, sourcing and disbursing of funds and adequate linkages with industry” to reality and not a mere mirage. To accomplish, This task necessitate the assessment of its leadership approach, styles, theories and methods towards the attainment of organization’s objective.

1.3    Objectives of the Study

i)            To examine the role of effective leadership on organization’s performance and success.

ii)          To establish effective leadership approach that will be most palatable for National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna towards the achievement of its goals.

iii)        To ascertain he kind of interpersonal relationship that exist between the management (leaders) of National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna and its subordinates (followers).

iv)         To bring to limelight the benefits of effective leadership to individuals, management (leaders) and the organization as a whole.

v)           To assists National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna uphold her glory in the education industry by maintaining and retaining her intellectual human capital through effective leadership.

1.4    Statement of Hypothesis

H0:    Effective leadership does not enhance organizational performance.

H1:    Effective leadership enhances organizational performance.

1.5    Significance of the Study

The study will contribute immensely in maintaining and retaining workforce proficiency skills and intellectual human capital necessary for the achievement of National Board for Technical Education vision and mission statement.

This research work, when applied appropriately will enhance employees job satisfaction through improved interpersonal relationship (leader-follower relationship), teamwork and sense of belonging in the organization.

This study when fully implemented will assist the management of National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna in discharging their leadership roles effectively and efficiently towards the achievement of organizational objectives.

This research work will motivate employees facilitate positive attitudes towards work, and thus enhance organizational performance and productivity.

This study will add to the existing body of knowledge on leadership roles in the achievement of organization’s objectives and thus serve as a reference material for future studies on the research topic.

It is the researcher’s belief that the end of this study, the findings, conclusion and recommendation arrived at will be instrumental to the leadership arm of National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna and other concerned organizations.

1.6    Scope of the Study

This study encompasses the assessment of the significance of effective leadership with regards to leadership styles, approaches, attitudes, theories and method son organizational performance and productivity towards the attainment of organizational goals in National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna. It also encapsulates how leaders influence followers, management roles in the attainment of goals and organizational leadership and development as a key factor to the attainment of organization’s objectives.

1.7    Limitation of the Study

In the course of this research work, the researcher is confronted with challenges of accessibility of secondary data materials from National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna. Inadequate resources such as finance in the actualization of this project. However, the researcher was able to overcome the challenges.

1.8    Historical Background of National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna

The National Board for Technical Education is a principal organ of the Federal Ministry of Education specifically created to handle all aspects of technical and vocational education falling outside university education. The Federal Government identified acute shortage of technical manpower as a constraint towards the execution of the Third National Development Plan of 1975 – 80. In response to this, government in 1972 established the then National Science and Technology Development Agency (later metamorphosed to Federal Ministry of Science and Technology) which set up a working committee on Scientific and Technical Manpower and Science Education. The committee produced a report on middle level technical manpower and their training. Among the recommendation of that committee was the creation of a National Board for Technical Education charged with the implementation of the recommendations of the report.

The Federal Government, therefore established the National Board for Technical Education by Act 9 of January 1977. In August, 1985 and January 1993 respectively, the Federal Government enacted Act 16 [Education (National Minimum Standards and Establishment of Institutions) Act] and Act 9 (National Minimum Standards and Establishment of Institutions) (Amendment) Act]. With these Acts, the functions of the Board were extended to include accreditation of academic programmes in all Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) institutions. Act No. 9 of 1st January 1993 further empowered the Board to recommend the establishment of private polytechnics and monotechnics in Nigeria.

In addition to providing standardized minimum guide curricula for technical and vocational education and training (TVET), the Board supervises and regulates through an accreditation process, the programmes offered by technical institutions at secondary and post secondary levels. It is also involved with the funding of Polytechnics owned by the government of the federation of Nigeria.

There are at present 111 approved tertiary institutions and 159 technical colleges under the purview of the Board with different types of ownership summarized in the table below:

Table 1.1: Summary of Number, Type and Ownership of Polytechnics, Monotechnics and Technical Colleges in Nigeria

Institutions

Ownership

 

Total

Types

Federal

State

Private

Polytechnics

21

38

15

74

Monotechnics

23

2

2

27

Colleges of Agriculture

17

19

36

Colleges of Health Technology

9

40

1

50

Other specialized institutions

13

3

16

IEIs and VEIs

71

71

Technical Colleges

19

110

3

132

Source: The board’s present Executive Secretary is in person of Dr. Masa’udu Adamu Kazaura as its Chief Executive Officer.

Vision: To uphold the ideals of a free, united and egalitarian society and promote good quality technical and vocational education; a system that is flexible and accessible to all for the purpose of producing competent and relevant technological manpower needed for sustainable national development.

Mission: To promote the production of skilled/semi-skilled technical and professional manpower to revitalize and sustain the national economy, reduce unemployment and poverty through the setting and maintenance of high standards, provision of current and reliable information for planning and decision making, sourcing and disbursing of funds and adequate linkages with industry.

1.9    Definition of Terms

  • Efficiency: Doing the thing right. It is concerned with the relationship between inputs and outputs, seeks to minimize resource costs.
  • Effectiveness: Doing the right thing. It is concerned with goal attainment, that is achieving organizational goals.
  • Leadership: Is the ability to persuade, energize and motivate people to collectively participate actively in group task towards the achievement of organization’s objective.
  • Organization: Is a cooperative and coordinated social system of two or more people with common purpose to achieve set goals and objectives.
  • Skills: is the ability to engage in a set of behaviour that are functionally related to one another and that lead to a desired performance level in a  given area.
  • Organizational Performance: This is organizational productivity measured on the basis of quality, profitability and customer satisfaction.
  • Human Capital: Is organization’s employees describe in terms of their training, experience, judgment, intelligence, relationships and insights.
  • Organizational Development: Is the process of empowering the organization to take advantage of its human capital resources.
  • Leadership Theories: These are theories that explain the different types of leadership including their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Effective Leadership: Is the leadership whose performance or effectiveness in relation to the achievement of the organization’s goals is above average.